Tagged: sutra

Sūtra (Sanskrit: सूत्र, Pāli: sutta, Ardhamagadhi: sūya) is an aphorism (or line, rule, formula) or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a text in Hinduism or Buddhism. Literally it means a thread or line that holds things together. The word “sutra” was very likely meant to apply quite literally to these texts, as they were written down in books of palm leaves sewn together with thread. This distinguishes them from the older sacred Vedas, which until recently were only memorised, never committed to paper.

In ancient Indian literature, sutra denotes a distinct type of literary composition, based on short aphoristic statements, generally using various technical terms. This literary form was designed for concision, as the texts were intended to be memorized by students in some of the formal methods of scriptural and scientific study (Sanskrit: svādhyāya). Since each line is highly condensed, another literary form arose in which commentaries (Sanskrit: bhāṣya) on the sutras were added, to clarify and explain them.

Bodhidharma Sutra 12 : “Every suffering is a Buddha-seed”

That which follows is witnessed on the way.
It’s beyond the ken of arhats and mortals.

When the mind reaches nirvana, you don’t see nirvana.
The mind is nirvana.
If you see nirvana somewhere outside the mind
you’re deluding yourself.

Every suffering is a Buddha-seed.
Suffering impels to seek wisdom.
Yet you can only say that suffering gives rise to Buddhahood.
You can’t say that suffering is Buddhahood.

Your body and mind are the field.
Suffering is the seed,
Wisdom the sprout and
Buddhahood the grain.

When the three poisons are present in your mind,
you live in a land of filth.
When the three poisons are absent from your mind,
you live in a land of purity.

There’s no language that isn’t the dharma.
To talk all day without saying anything is the way.
To be silent all day and still say something isn’t the way.
Hence, neither does a tathagata’s speech depend on silence,
nor does his silence depend on speech.
Nor does his speech exist apart from his silence.

Those who understand both speech and silence are in samadhi.
If you speak when you know, your speech is free.
If you’re silent when you don’t know, your silence is tied.
Language is essentially free. It has nothing to do with attachment.
And attachment has nothing to do with language.

Bodhidharma Sutra 13 : “Mind is the bondage”

Without the mind there’s no Buddha means that the Buddha comes from the mind …. Whoever wants to see a Buddha sees the mind before he sees the Buddha …once you’ve seen the Buddha, you forget about the mind. If you don’t forget about the mind, the mind will confuse you ….

Mortality and Buddhahood are like water and ice. To be afflicted by the three poisons is mortality. To be purified by the three releases is Buddhahood. That which freezes into ice in winter melts into water in summer. Eliminate ice, and there’s no more water. Get rid of mortality, and there’s no more Buddhahood. Clearly, the nature of ice is the nature of water ….

Mortals liberate Buddhas and Buddhas liberate mortals. This is what’s meant by impartiality. Mortals liberate Buddhas because affliction creates awareness. And Buddhas liberate mortals because awareness negates affliction. There can’t help but be affliction. And there can’t help but be awareness. If not for affliction, there would be nothing to create awareness. And if not for awareness, there would be nothing to negate affliction. When you’re deluded, Buddhas liberate mortals. When you’re aware, mortals liberate Buddhas. Buddhas don’t become Buddhas on their own. They’re liberated by mortals. Buddhas regard delusion as their father and greed as their mother. Delusion and greed are different names for mortality ….

When you’re deluded, you’re on this shore. When you’re aware, you’re on the other shore. But once you know your mind is empty and you see no appearances, you’re beyond delusion and awareness. And once you’re beyond delusion and awareness, the other shore doesn’t exist. The tathagata isn’t on this shore or the other shore. And he isn’t in midstream. Arhats are in midstream, and mortals are on this shore. On the other shore is Buddhahood.

Bodhidharma Sutra 14 : “To face a Buddha is dangerous”

Buddhas have three bodies: a transformation body, a reward body and a real body. The transformation body is also called the incarnation body. The transformation body appears when mortals do good deeds, the reward body when they cultivate wisdom and the real body when they become aware of the sublime …. But actually, there’s not even one Buddha-body, much less three. This talk of three bodies is simply based on human understanding, which can be shallow, moderate or deep. People of shallow understanding imagine they’re piling up blessings and mistake the transformation body as the Buddha. People of moderate understanding imagine they’re putting an end to suffering and mistake the reward body as the Buddha. And people of deep understanding imagine they’re experiencing Buddhahood and mistake the real body as the Buddha. But people of the deepest understanding look within, distracted by nothing. Since a clear mind is the Buddha, they attain the understanding of a Buddha without using the mind ….

Individuals create karma. Karma doesn’t create individuals …. Only someone who’s perfect creates no karma in this life and receives no reward. The sutras say, “who creates no karma obtains the dharma” …. When you create karma, you’re reborn along with your karma. When you don’t create karma, you vanish along with your karma ….

Someone who understands the teaching of sages is a sage. Someone who understands the teaching of mortals is a mortal. A mortal who can give up the teaching of mortals and follow the teaching of sages becomes a sage. But the fools of this world prefer to look for sages far away. They don’t believe that the wisdom of their own mind is the sage. The sutras say, “among men of no understanding, don’t preach this sutra.”     …the sutras say, “when you see that all appearances are not appearances, you see the tathagata.” the myriad doors to the truth all come from the mind. When appearances of the mind are as transparent as space, they’re gone ….

When mortals are alive they worry about death. When they’re full, they worry about hunger. Theirs is the great uncertainty. But sages don’t consider the past. And they don’t worry about the future. Nor do they cling to the present. From moment to moment they follow the way.

Bodhidharma Sutra 15 : “The Breakthrough Sermon”

If someone is determined to reach enlightenment, what is the most essential method he can practice?

The most essential method, which includes all other methods, is beholding the mind.

But how can one method include all others? The mind is the root from which all things grow. If you can understand the mind, everything else is included. It’s like with a tree. All of its fruit and flowers, its branches and leaves, depend on its root. If you nourish its root, a tree multiplies. If you cut its root, it dies. Those who understand the mind reach enlightenment with minimal effort. Those who don’t understand the mind practice in vain. Everything good and bad comes from your own mind. To find something beyond the mind is impossible.

But how can beholding the mind be called understanding?

When a great bodhisattva delves deeply into perfect wisdom, he realizes …the activity of his mind has two aspects: pure and impure …the pure mind delighting in good deeds, the impure mind thinking of evil. Those who aren’t affected by impurity are sages. They transcend suffering and experience the bliss of nirvana. All others, trapped by the impure mind and entangled by their own karma, are mortals. They drift through the three realms and suffer countless afflictions. And all because their impure mind obscures their real self.

The sutra of the ten stages says, “in the body of mortals is the indestructible Buddha-nature. Like the sun, its light fills endless space. But once veiled by the dark clouds of the five shades, it’s like a light inside a jar, hidden from view.” and the nirvana sutra says, “all mortals have the Buddha-nature. But it’s covered by darkness from which they can’t escape. Our Buddha-nature is awareness: to be aware and to make others aware. To realize awareness is liberation.” everything good has awareness for its root. From this root of awareness grow the tree of all virtues and the fruit of nirvana.

Bodhidharma Sutra 17 : “Take the risk wholesale”

But the Buddha said, “only after undergoing innumerable hardships for three asankhya kalpas did i achieve enlightenment.” why do you now say that simply beholding the mind and overcoming the three poisons is liberation? The words of the Buddha are true. But the three asankhya kalpas refer to the three poisoned states of mind. What we call asankhya in Sanskrit, you call countless. Within these three poisoned states of mind are countless evil thoughts. And every thought lasts a kalpa. Such an infinity is what the Buddha meant by the three asankhya kalpas ….

But the great bodhisattvas have only achieved enlightenment by observing the three sets of precepts and by practicing the six paramitas. Now you tell disciples merely to behold the mind. How can anyone reach enlightenment without cultivating the rules of discipline?

The three sets of precepts are for overcoming the three poisoned states of mind. When you overcome these poisons, you create three sets of limitless virtue. A set gathers things together — in this case, countless good thoughts throughout your mind. And the six paramitas are for purifying the six senses. What we call paramitas, you call means to the other shore. By purifying your six senses of the dust of sensation, the paramitas ferry you across the river of affliction to the shore of enlightenment.

According to the sutras, the three sets of precepts are, “i vow to put an end to all evils. I vow to cultivate all virtues. And i vow to liberate all beings.” but now you say they’re only for controlling the three poisoned states of mind. Isn’t this contrary to the meaning of the scriptures?

The sutras of the Buddha are true. But long ago, when that great bodhisattva was cultivating the seed of enlightenment, it was to counter the three poisons that he made his three vows. Practicing moral prohibitions to counter the poison of greed, he vowed to put an end to all evils. Practicing meditation to counter the poison of anger, he vowed to cultivate all virtues. And practicing wisdom to counter the poison of delusion, he vowed to liberate all beings. Because he persevered in these three pure practices of morality, meditation and wisdom, he was able to overcome the three poisons and reach enlightenment. By overcoming the three poisons, he wiped out everything sinful and thus put an end to evil. By observing the three sets of precepts, he did nothing but good and thus cultivated virtue. And by putting an end to evil and cultivating virtue, he consummated all practices, benefited himself as well as others and rescued mortals everywhere. Thus, he liberated beings.

Bodhidharma Sutra 16 : “The courage to say ‘I don’t know’”

You say that our true Buddha-nature and all virtues have awareness for their root. But what is the root of ignorance? The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions and evils, is rooted in the three poisons: greed, anger and delusion. These three poisoned states of mind themselves include countless evils, like trees that have a single trunk but countless branches and leaves. Yet each poison produces so many more millions of evils that the example of a tree is hardly a fitting comparison.

The three poisons are present in our six sense organs as six kinds of consciousness, or thieves. They’re called thieves because they pass in and out of the gates of the senses, covet limitless possessions, engage in evil and mask their true identity ….

But if someone cuts off their source, rivers dry up. And if someone who seeks liberation can turn the three poisons into the three sets of precepts and the six thieves into the six paramitas, he rids himself of affliction once and for all. But the three realms and the six states of existence are infinitely vast.

How can we escape their endless afflictions if all we do is behold the mind?

The karma of the three realms comes from the mind alone. If your mind isn’t within the three realms, it’s beyond them.

And how does the karma of these six differ?

Mortals who don’t understand true practice and blindly perform good deeds are born into the three states …. Those who blindly perform the ten good deeds and foolishly seek happiness are born as gods in the realm of desire. Those who blindly observe the five precepts and foolishly indulge in love and hate are born as men in the realm of anger. And those who blindly cling to the phenomenal world, believe in false doctrines and hope for blessings are born as demons in the realm of delusion.     …if you can just concentrate your mind and transcend its falsehood and evil, the suffering of existence will automatically disappear. And once free from suffering, you’re truly free.

Bodhidharma Sutra 18 : “Wakefulness is awareness”

You should realize that the practice you cultivate doesn’t exist apart from your mind. If your mind is pure, all Buddha lands are pure. The sutras say, “if their minds are impure, beings are impure. If their minds are pure, beings are pure.” and, “to reach a Buddha land, purify your mind. As your mind becomes pure, Buddha lands become pure.” thus, by overcoming the three poisoned states of mind, the three sets of precepts are automatically fulfilled.

But the sutras say the six paramitas are charity, morality, patience, devotion, meditation and wisdom. Now you say the paramitas refer to the purification of the senses. What do you mean by this? And why are they called ferries?

In cultivating the paramitas, purification of the six senses means overcoming the six thieves. Casting out the thief of the eye by abandoning the visual world is charity. Keeping out the thief of the ear by not listening to sounds is morality. Humbling the thief of the nose by equating all smells as neutral is patience. Controlling the thief of the mouth by conquering desires to taste, praise and explain is devotion. Quelling the thief of the body by remaining unmoved by sensations of touch is meditation. And taming the thief of the mind by not yielding to delusions but practicing wakefulness is wisdom. These six paramitas are transports. Like boats or rafts, they transport beings to the other shore. Hence, they’re called ferries.

But when shakyamuni was a bodhisattva, he consumed three bowls of milk and six ladles of gruel prior to attaining enlightenment. If he had to drink milk before he could taste the fruit of Buddhahood, how can merely beholding the mind result in liberation?

What you say is true. This is how he attained enlightenment. He had to drink milk before he could become a Buddha. But there are two kinds of milk. That which shakyamuni drank wasn’t ordinary impure milk but pure dharmamilk. The three bowls were the three sets of precepts. And the six ladles were the six paramitas. When shakyamuni attained enlightenment, it was because he drank this pure dharmamilk that he tasted the fruit of Buddhahood. To say that the tathagata drank the worldly concoction of impure, rank-smelling cow’s milk is the height of slander. That which is truly-so, the indestructible, passionless dharma-self, remains forever free of the world’s afflictions. Why would it need impure milk to satisfy its hunger or thirst?

The sutras say, “this ox doesn’t live in the highlands or the lowlands. It doesn’t eat grain or chaff. And it doesn’t graze with cows. The body of this ox is the color of burnished gold.” the ox refers to vairocana. Due to his great compassion for all beings, he produces from within his pure dharmabody the sublime dharmamilk of the three sets of precepts and six paramitas to nourish all those who seek liberation. The pure milk of such a truly pure ox not only enabled the tathagata to achieve Buddhahood, it enables any being who drinks it to attain unexcelled, complete enlightenment.

Bodhidharma Sutra 19 : “Relish the mystery in the depths of your heart”

Throughout the sutras, the Buddha tells mortals they can achieve enlightenment by performing such meritorious works as building monasteries, casting statues, burning incense, scattering flowers, lighting eternal lamps, practicing all six periods of the day and night, walking around stupas, observing fasts and worshiping. But if beholding the mind includes all other practices, then such works as these would appear redundant.

The sutras of the Buddha contain countless metaphors. Because mortals have shallow minds and don’t understand anything deep, the Buddha used the tangible to represent the sublime. People who seek blessings by concentrating on external works instead of internal cultivation are attempting the impossible. What you call a monastery, we call a sangharama, a place of purity. But whoever denies entry to the three poisons and keeps the gates of his senses pure, his body and mind still, inside and outside clean, builds a monastery.

Casting statues refers to all practices cultivated by those who seek enlightenment ….

And burning incense doesn’t mean ordinary material incense but the incense of the intangible dharma, which drives away filth, ignorance and evil deeds with its perfume ….

When the Buddha was in the world, he told his disciples to light such precious incense with the fire of awareness as an offering to the Buddhas of the ten directions. But people today don’t understand the tathagata’s real meaning. They use an ordinary flame to light material incense of sandalwood or frankincense hoping for some future blessing that never comes.

For scattering flowers the same holds true. This refers to speaking the dharma, or to scattering flowers of virtue, in order to benefit others and glorify the real self …. If you think the tathagata meant for people to harm plants by cutting off their bloom, you’re wrong. Those who observe the precepts don’t injure any of the myriad life forms of heaven and earth. If you hurt something by mistake, you suffer for it. But those who intentionally break the precepts by injuring the living for the sake of future blessings suffer even more. How could they let would-be blessings turn into sorrows?

The eternal lamp represents perfect awareness.      …long ago, there was a Buddha named dipamkara, or lamplighter. This was the meaning of his name …. The light released by a Buddha from one curl between his brows can illuminate countless worlds. An oil lamp is no help ….

Practicing all six periods of the day and night means among the six senses constantly cultivating enlightenment and perservering in every form of awareness. Never relaxing control over the six senses is what’s meant by all six periods.

As for walking around stupas, the stupa is your body and mind. When your awareness circles your body and mind without stop, this is called walking around a stupa ….

The same holds true for observing a fast …. To fast means …to regulate your body and mind so that they’re not distracted or disturbed.

Also, once you stop eating the food of delusion, if you touch it again, you break your fast. And once you break it, you reap no blessing from it. The world is full of deluded people who don’t see this. They indulge their body and mind in all manner of evil. They give free rein to their passions and have no shame. And when they stop eating ordinary food, they call it fasting. How absurd!

It’s the same with worshiping. You have to understand the meaning and adapt to conditions. Meaning includes action and non-action …. Worship means reverence and humility. It means revering your real self and humbling delusions. If you can wipe out evil desires and harbor good thoughts, even if nothing shows, it’s worship ….

Those who fail to cultivate the inner meaning and concentrate instead on the outward expression never stop indulging in ignorance, hatred and evil while exhausting themselves to no avail. They can deceive others with postures, remain shameless before sages and vain before mortals, but they’ll never escape the wheel, much less achieve any merit.

Bodhidharma Sutra 20 : “Less than an eyeblink away”

But the bathhouse sutra says, “by contributing to the bathing of monks, people receive limitless blessings.” this would appear to be an instance of external practice achieving merit. How does this relate to beholding the mind?

Here, the bathing of monks doesn’t refer to the washing of anything tangible. When the lord preached the bathhouse sutra, he wanted his disciples to remember the dharma of washing. So he used an everyday concern to convey his real meaning.        …the bathhouse is the body. When you light the fire of wisdom, you warm the pure water of the precepts and bathe the true Buddha-nature within you. By upholding these seven practices, you add to your virtue. The monks of that age were perceptive. They understood the Buddha’s meaning. They followed his teaching, perfected their virtue and tasted the fruit of Buddhahood. But people nowadays can’t fathom these things. …our true Buddha-nature has no shape. And the dust of affliction has no form. How can people use ordinary water to wash an intangible body? It won’t work. When will they wake up? To clean such a body, you have to behold it. Once impurities and filth arise from desire, they multiply until they cover you inside and out. But if you try to wash this body of yours, you’ll have to scrub until it’s nearly gone before it’s clean. From this you should realize that washing something external isn’t what the Buddha meant.

The sutras say that someone who wholeheartedly invokes the Buddha is sure to be reborn in the western paradise. Since this door leads to Buddhahood, why seek liberation in beholding the mind?        …Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. And to invoke means to call to mind, to call constantly to mind the rules of discipline and to follow them with all your might.         …to invoke the Buddha’s name, you have to understand the dharma of invoking. If it’s not present in your mind, your mouth chants an empty name. As long as you’re troubled by the three poisons or by thoughts of yourself, your deluded mind will keep you from seeing the Buddha …. If you cling to appearances while searching for meaning, you won’t find a thing. Thus, sages of the past cultivated introspection and not speech.

This mind is the source of all virtues. And this mind is the chief of all powers. The eternal bliss of nirvana comes from the mind at rest. Rebirth in the three realms also comes from the mind. The mind is the door to every world. And the mind is the ford to the other shore. Those who know where the door is don’t worry about reaching it. Those who know where the ford is don’t worry about crossing it.

The people i meet nowadays are superficial. They think of merit as something that has form. They squander their wealth and butcher creatures of land and sea …. They see something tangible and instantly become attached. If you talk to them about formlessness, they sit there dumb and confused. Greedy for the small mercies of this world, they remain blind to the great suffering to come. Such disciples wear themselves out in vain. Turning from the true to the false, they talk about nothing but future blessings.

If you can simply concentrate you mind’s inner light and behold its outer illumination, you’ll dispel the three poisons and drive away the six thieves once and for all. And without effort you’ll gain possession of an infinite number of virtues, perfections and doors to the truth. Seeing through the mundane and witnessing the sublime is less than an eye-blink away. Realization is now. Why worry about gray hair? But the true door is hidden and can’t be revealed. I have only touched upon beholding the mind.

Heart Sutra

Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, when deeply practising profound Prajna Paramita [Perfection of Wisdom]; clearly saw that all five skandhas are empty and thus relieved all suffering.

‘Shariputra, form does not differ from emptiness, emptiness does not differ from form. Form itself is emptiness, emptiness itself form; sensations, perceptions, formations, and consciousness are also like this.

‘Shariputra, all dharmas are marked by emptiness. They neither arise nor cease, are neither defiled nor pure, neither increase nor decrease.

‘Therefore, given emptiness, there is no form, no sensation, no perception, no formation, no consciousness; no eyes, no ears, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind, no form, no sound, no smell, no taste, no touch, no object of mind, no realm of sight . . . no realm of mind consciousness. There is neither ignorance nor extinction of ignorance, neither old age and death nor extinction of old age and death. No suffering, no cause, no cessation, no path. No knowledge and no attainments. With nothing to attain a Bodhisattva relies on Prajna Paramita [Perfection of Wisdom], and thus the mind is without hindrance. Without hindrance, there is no fear. Far beyond all inverted views, this is Nirvana.

‘All Buddhas of past, present, and future rely on Prajna Paramita and thereby attain unsurpassed, complete, perfect enlightenment.

‘Therefore know Prajna Paramita as the great miraculous mantra, as the great bright mantra, as the supreme mantra, as the incomparable mantra, which removes all suffering
and is true, not false, therefore, we proclaim the Prajna Paramita mantra, the mantra that says:

Gate Gate Paragate Parasamgate Bodhi Svaha!

Gone, gone, gone beyond, completely gone beyond ~ enlightenment.

Perceiving that all five skandhas are empty saves all beings from suffering.
Form does not differ from emptiness, emptiness does not differ from form.
Form is emptiness, emptiness is form.
No appearing, no disappearing.
No taint, no purity.
No increase, no decrease.
All dharmas are marked with emptiness.
No cognition—no attainment.

Unexcelled perfect enlightenment—anuttara samyak sambodhi.
Gate, gate, paragate, parasamgate, bodhi svaha!